Shavuot — also known as the Feast of Weeks — is the second of three mandatory pilgrimage festivals to Jerusalem that the men of Israel were required to make each year. These three so-called “ascendant” festivals served as a visual affirmation of the nation’s commitment to the Most High. They were mandated by Torah, and a condition of the nation’s covenant promise to Yahuah.
Three times a year all your men are to appear before the LORD your God in the place He will choose: at the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, and the Feast of Tabernacles. No one should appear before the LORD empty-handed.
Deuteronomy 16:16 Berean Study Bibles
Since all believers in Messiah through faith and obedience are considered Israel,1 when we memorialize Yah’s feasts we honor our Heavenly Father. Through our actions we show others that we want to go home — back to the Garden. We are demonstrating our faith in the Father’s promise that through Yeshua we will live with Him in New Jerusalem. This place is also known as the Promised Land which descends to earth following the tribulation.
Then one of the seven angels with the seven bowls full of the seven final plagues came and said to me, “Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb.” And he carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the holy city of Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God, shining with the glory of God. Its radiance was like a most precious jewel, like a jasper, as clear as crystal. The city had a great and high wall with twelve gates inscribed with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, and twelve angels at the gates.
The heart’s desire of every believer is to go home. Our journey back to the paradise that was lost by Adam involves a rough and tumble pilgrimage. The way is paved with heartache, pain, disappointment, fear, deception, and betrayal. However, humanity’s dream of ultimately dwelling with our Creator can only become a reality through Yeshua. He meant it when he promised to prepare a place for us in the Kingdom to come. (John 14:2,3)
Both Isaiah and Micah hinted at these pilgrimages actually being dress rehearsals for what resurrected saints will see happening once New Jerusalem comes down to earth. The “sheep nations” (Matthew 25:31-34) consisting of mortal humanity who enter the Millennium will also participate in these pilgrimages as part of their training in righteousness.
In the last days the mountain of the house of the LORD will be established as the chief of the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and all nations will stream to it. And many peoples will come and say: “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob. He will teach us His ways so that we may walk in His paths.” For the law will go forth from Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
Isaiah 2:2,3 Berean Study Bible
And many nations will come and say: “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob. He will teach us His ways, so that we may walk in His paths.” For the law will go forth from Zion and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
Micah 4:2 Berean Study Bible
And the nations of those who are saved shall walk in its light, and the kings of the earth bring their glory and honor into it. Its gates shall not be shut at all by day (there shall be no night there). And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it.
Revelation 21: 24-26 New King James Version
Our Return to the Kingdom
In our effort to get back home, we must ascend or go up little-by-little. The Hebrew word for ascent is ma’alot. It is used often in the Psalms of Ascent — Psalms 120-134. Just as the Hebrews journeyed up to Jerusalem to present their gifts, we must also ascend to a higher way of living.
Many believe the ascent referred to were the 15 steps that led to the Jerusalem temple. Others think the ascent is connected to the people’s journey back from exile. Both interpretations hold true. Like rebellious Israel and Judah, we too have been disobedient. We have spent years in exile, separated from the Father. We have broken His covenant and long for His presence.
While the earthly temple was never meant to be an end in itself, it pointed to a time and place where Father and Son would dwell with humanity. So ultimately, these Psalms of Ascent remind us that Yah’s presence with His people will become a reality.
Here are excerpts from just a few of the Psalms of Ascent that the people sang on their way to Jerusalem.
I will lift up my eyes to the hills — From whence comes my help? My help comes from the LORD, who made heaven and earth. He will not allow your foot to be moved; He who keeps you will not slumber. Behold, He who keeps Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep.
Psalm 121:1-4 NKJV
Jerusalem is built as a city that is compact together, where the tribes go up, the tribes of the LORD, to the Testimony of Israel, to give thanks to the name of the LORD. For thrones are set there for judgment, the thrones of the house of David.
Psalm 122: 3-5 NKJV
Unto You I lift up my eyes, O You who dwell in the heavens. Behold, as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their masters, as the eyes of a maid to the hand of her mistress, so our eyes look to the LORD our God, until He has mercy on us.
Psalm 123:1,2 NKJV
Out of the depths I have cried to You, O LORD; Lord, hear my voice! Let your ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications. If you, LORD, should mark iniquities, O Lord, who could stand? But there is forgiveness with You, that You may be feared. I wait for the LORD, my soul waits, and in His word I do hope.
Psalm 130:1-5 NKJV
If your sons will keep My covenant and My testimony which I shall teach them, their sons also shall sit upon your throne forevermore.” For the Lord has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His dwelling place: “This is My resting place forever; here I will dwell, for I have desired it. I will abundantly bless her provision; I will satisfy her poor with bread. I will also clothe her priests with salvation. And her saints shall shout aloud for joy. NKJV
These Psalms of Ascent remind believers that when we follow the Way of Yeshua, we will ascend to a higher level of faith and spiritual maturity. We will remember the Father’s mercy, forgiveness, kindness, long suffering, redemption and love. These are the things that bring us joy as we focus on the Father and His rules for living righteously.
Shavuot’s Ties to Noah, Abraham, and Moses
Shavuot is a festival of renewal of the eternal Covenant. Jubilees tells us that this festival has been kept in heaven since the beginning — before the earth was created. It was celebrated by Noah, Moses, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
We serve a Creator who keeps His promises and expects us to do the same. Yah told Noah that He would never again destroy the world with a flood and promised that the Seasons would continue as long as the earth remained.
And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal covenant that there should not again be a flood on the earth to destroy it all the days of the earth. For this reason it is ordained and written on the heavenly tablets, that they should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, to renew the covenant every year. And this whole festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation till the days of Noah…
Jubilees 6:15-18Pseudepigrapha, by R.H. Charles
“Thus I establish My covenant with you: Never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of the flood; never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth.” And God said: This is the sign of the covenant which I make between Me and you, and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations: “I set My rainbow in the clouds and it shall be for the sign of the covenant between Me and the earth.
Genesis 9:11-13New King James Version
After Noah died, his sons and grandsons did not continue this feast. However, Abraham did.
But Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children observed it up to thy days and in thy days the children of Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain.
Jubilees 9:19Pseudepigrapha, by R.H. Charles
And in the fifth year of the fourth week of this jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain harvest. And he offered new offerings on the altar, the first-fruits of the produce, unto the Lord, an heifer and a goat and a sheep on the altar as a burnt sacrifice unto the Lord; their fruit offerings and their drink offerings he offered upon the altar with frankincense. And the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; approve thyself before me and be thou perfect. And I will make My covenant between Me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceedingly.’ And Abram fell on his face, and God talked with him and said: ‘Behold my ordinance is with thee, and thou shalt be the father of many nations. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but they name from henceforth, even for ever, shall be Abraham. For the father of many nations have I made thee. And I will make thee very great, and I will make thee into nations, and kings shall come forth from thee. And I shall establish My covenant between Me and thee, and to thy seed after thee.2
Jubilees 15:1-9 Pseudepigrapha, by R.H. Charles
It is interesting that the golden calf incident in Exodus 32 is also connected to Shavuot. In their impatience and impudence the people pressured Aaron into making an idol. This act violated the first and second commandments.
And he received the gold from their hand, and he fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made molded calf. Then they said, “This is your god, O Israel, that brought you out of the land of Egypt!” So when Aaron saw it, he built an alter before it. And aaron made a proclamation and said, “Tomorrow is a feast to the LORD.”
Exodus 32:4,5 New King James Version
I am the Lord your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt; out of the house of bondage. You hall have no other gods before Me. You shall not make for yourself a carved image — any likeness of anything that is in heaven above or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them.
Deuteronomy 5: 6-9 New King James Version
And do command the children of Israel to observe this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto them: one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate the festival. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast of first fruits: this feast is twofold and oaf a double nature: according to what is written and engraved concerning it, celebrate it. For I have written in this book of the first law, in that which I have written for thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remember and should celebrate it throughout their generations in this month, one day in every year.
Exodus 32:4,5 New King James Version
Shavuot is Pentecost
Shavuot is not just a “Jewish” thing as some naively insist. It is a festival that we are told to celebrate from generation to generation. Yeshua recognized its significance when he chose this day to fill his disciples with the Holy Spirit in the Upper Room on Pentecost.3 (Pentecost to the Greek work which means “the fiftieth day.” This is not a coincidence.
Leviticus tells us that this “Feast of Weeks” happens on the fiftieth day, following 7 weeks of Sabbaths after Passover (7×7 = 49 +1). It is also the day Moses presented the Torah (rules for living) to the people at Sinai.
You shall also count for yourselves from the day after the sabbath, from the day when you brought in the sheaf of the wave offering; there shall be seven complete sabbaths. ‘You shall count fifty days to the day after the seventh sabbath; then you shall present a new grain offering to the LORD.
Leviticus 23:15,16 Berean Study Bible
When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. Suddenly a sound like a mighty rushing wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. They saw tongues like flames of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them.
Acts 2:1-4 Berean Study Bible
What was inscribed on stone tablets at Mount Sinai was now proleptically being inscribed on believing hearts of flesh. When the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) was given in Acts, it was a foreshadowing of the first Resurrection event when the redeemed would receive new bodies. Our resurrection bodies will have the Torah engraved on our hearts so we will never sin again.
Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. It will not be like the covenant I made with their fathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt — a covenant they broke, though I was a husband to them,” declares the LORD. “But this is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after those days, declares the LORD. I will put My law in their minds and inscribe it on their hearts. And I will be their God,and they will be My people. No longer will each man teach his neighbor or his brother,saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ because they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest, declares the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquitiesand will remember their sins no more.”
Jeremiah 31:31-34 Berean Study Bible
This New Covenant reality has not yet materialized. If you are tempted to say yes, it has, then ask yourself these questions: “Do you have all of the commandments contained in the Scriptures committed to memory? Do you still sin?” Both Jeremiah and the author of Hebrews 8:8-10 are speaking of a future event.
The Joy of Remembering Shavuot
Although as believers in Messiah we are not journeying to a temple in Jerusalem these days, we are encouraged to remember Yah’s Feasts Days. These annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem reminded the Israelites of their heritage and the eternal promises of Yah. They were considered joyous occasions because the people were given the opportunity to give back to Yah in appreciation for all He had done for them. It should do the same for us as we await our Messiah’s return.
As you read through the Psalms of Ascent your heart will be lead to meditate on the goodness of Yah. In his rules for living called the Torah, we are taught how to love our Father and our brothers and sisters. These festivals are a way of promoting community, strengthening our faith, and giving honor to Yah. The gift of the Holy Spirit was meant to empower us to do this. What a joy!
Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity! It is like the precious oil upon the head, running down on the beard, the beard of Aaron, running down on the edge of his garments. It is like the dew of Hermon, descending upon the mountains of Zion; for there the Lord commanded the blessing — Life forevermore.
Psalm 133, A Song of Ascents of David, New King James Version
1 Biblical Israel has nothing to do with the nation which currently bears that name in the Middle East. It consists of believers from every nation, tribe, tongue and people who have put their faith in the Messiah for redemption. This process, also known as salvation is carried out by our High Pries Yeshua and will reach its apex at the resurrection. However, the land on which earthly Jerusalem now sits will also be the place where the New Jerusalem will descend to earth. See The Gospel Worth Dying For, Chapter 6, “Here Comes the Bride.”
2 Compare with Genesis 15 and The Apocalypse of Abraham Part 2, Chapters 9, 20
3 From Strong’s #G4005, pentekoste. Thayer’s Greek Lexicon gives this definition: “the second of the three great Jewish feasts, celebrated at Jerusalm yearly, the seventh week after the Passover, in grateful recognition of the completed harvest.”
Seeds of the Gospel of the Kingdom were planted in the Genesis accounts of the creation, and Adam’s genealogy.a Just as the Father had infused nature with the ability to procreate, his instructions to the first couple mandated that they “be fruitful and multiply.” The act of procreation would create the “after their own kind” template which they had observed in nature.
However, what began with so much optimism and joy ended in shame. Because of their sin, Adam and his wife were evicted from Paradise. They were guilty of transgressing Yah’s commandment not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. This punishment would impact their progeny and creation itself.
Both thorns and thistles it will yield for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your brow you will eat your bread, until you return to the ground— because out of it were you taken. For dust you are, and to dust you shall return.
Genesis 3:18,19 (Berean Study Bible)
For the creation was subjected to futility, not by its own will, but because of the One who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be set free from its bondage to decay and brought into the glorious freedom of the children of God.
Romans 8:20,21 (Berean Study Bible)
Although we know that the heavens and earth do not literally procreate, in Genesis it is metaphorically pointing to the events that will take place following the creation of “heaven and earth.”
These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.
Genesis 2:4 (KJV)
Adam is the beginning of humanity. As his offspring, we are carriers of his genetic material — both physically and spiritually. The impact of Adam’s sin nature would ripple through thousands of generations.1
Yet, by the end of the fifth chapter of Genesis, hope begins to shine through the darkness. While pronouncing judgment on the couple and their adversary, our Heavenly Father also demonstrates His mercy. Yes, the man and his wife would be punished, but redemption was in their future. From the woman would eventually come a man known as the last Adam who would redeem humankind.
Yes, they would die. But they were also given the chance to live; through the coming of Yeshua (Jesus) as their savior and High Priest. This was evident during the arraignment proceedings involving the serpent, the man, and the woman. The verse outlining the serpent’s punishment may help us understand how “seed” is connected to the genetic history which can stem from either a person or event.
And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed. He shall bruise2 your head, and you shall bruise his heel.
Genesis 3:15 (KJV)
And I will put enmity between thee and the woman and between thy seed and her seed, he shall watch3 against thy head, and thou shalt watch against his heel.
Genesis 3:16 (LXX)
And I will put hatred between you and between the woman; and between your seed and between her seed. He will give heed to your head, and you will give heed to his heel.4
Genesis 3:15 (Apostolic Bible Polyglot)
Hostility would now define the relationship between the woman and Satan. More importantly, the enemy would target her righteous offspring, culminating in the crucifixion of the coming Messiah.
When you break out the Hebrew words for bruise, heed, and heel you get fascinating insights into what is going on here. You could conceivably paraphrase it to read:
And I will put hostility between you (the serpent) and the woman, and between your progeny (the coming anti-messiah and/or including the unrighteous) and her Seed (Yeshua). He (Yeshua) shall observe and keep an eye on you and you (the serpent) will track him from the rear, watching and following his steps.
Adam’s Genealogy Spawns Generational Curses
The early years of marriage for Adam and Chavah (Eve) were filled with heartache. Envy led to fratricide with the murder of Abel at the hand of his brother Cain. Cain’s jealousy got the best of him and what was in his heart spilled out as rage and the first murderous act.
Before we examine Adam’s genealogy, we should set the stage by focusing on the Hebrew word tôldôt. It can be defined as “an account of men and their descendants.” 5 Tôldôt (H8435) is the “story” or genetic line that is propagated from a person or event. When you understand how tôldôt works in the Genesis narrative, you will see how the Gospel of the Kingdom prophecy unfolds throughout multiple generations. It is the narrowing and expanding of Adam’s family tree which will ultimately make good on Yah’s promise of a coming Deliverer and a literal heavenly Kingdom on earth.
The genealogies mentioned in Genesis include those of:
The heavens and earth
Noah and his sons: Shem, Ham, Japheth
The nations descended from Noah (his sons)
Abram/Abraham (Isaac and Jacob) and his descendants through Hagar and Keturah
Although the temptation is strong to skip these patriarchal family trees, you should read and study them. They contain scriptural nuggets of information that will help you understand the entirety of the Bible narrative.
Hebrew Names Mean Something
Names carry deep meanings in the Hebrew language. This is evident through out the Biblical canon. We cannot give a conclusive answer as to how baby names were chosen. However, based on various Scripture accounts taken in context, circumstances at birth no doubt played a part.
In the Bible, many names said just what they meant. Names were more than just labels. To ancient Hebrews and Babylonians, nothing existed until it had a name. Its name expressed its character.
Professor David Noel Freedman, University of California at San Diego
Here are examples of different types of ancient Hebrew naming nomenclature categories:
Honoring the Almighty
Expressions of character or mission
Name change designed to reflect a person’s new disposition
The personal name of the Eternal One, the Tetragrammaton YHWH, occurs 5,321 times in the biblical canon of 66 books. Since Hebrew does not contain vowels, there is much controversy surrounding the correct spelling and pronunciation of The Name. Some say the Almighty’s name is Yahweh, others prefer Yahuah. We will leave this to you to research and draw your own conclusions.6
However, since Yah’s name identifies his nature, a mention of His name is equivalent to identifying His character. Here are a few name-based meanings of Yah’s name:
I am [is] what I am
I cause to be
the Existing One
In the Scriptures you can see many examples of people whose names are appended with “El” or “Yah” — Hebrew words for God (Most High Elohim).
When naming their offspring, many Hebrew parents chose names that would define the character or mission of the child. Sometimes angels would appear on behalf of Yah (God) with a name that had been chosen by the Father. This happened with Sarah (Genesis 17:19) in the naming of Isaac, Zacharias (Luke 1:13) in the naming of John the Immerser (Baptist), and Joseph the husband of Mary (Matthew 1:20,21) in the naming of Yeshua.
Isaac’s name means “laughter”, which is what this child brought to his mother and Father Abraham after a lengthy period of barrenness. John is Yochanan or Ioannes (Greek). It means “Yah is a gracious giver” or “Yah has graced.” How fitting for Zacharias and Elizabeth who had also been unable to conceive for many years.
But God replied, “Your wife Sarah will indeed bear you a son, and you are to name him Isaac. I will establish My covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him.
Genesis 17:19 Berean Study Bible7 (BSB)
But the angel said, “Don’t be afraid, Zechariah! God has heard your prayer. Your wife, Elizabeth, will give you a son, and you are to name him John.
Luke 1:13 New Living Translation (NLT)
The most profound example of “mission” is in the pronouncement of the birth of Yeshua (Jesus), whose name means salvation.
But after he had considered this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.”
Matthew 1:20,21 New International Version (NIV)
Name Change Designed to Reflect a Person’s New Disposition
The first instance of a person having their name changed was Hoshea. Moses decided to change Hoshea’s name to Joshua before he was sent on a mission to spy out the land of Canaan — the Promised land. How fitting since this is the land where New Jerusalem will set down following the Day of the Lord.
These are the names of the men whom Moses sent to spy out the land. And Moses called Hoshea the son of Nun, Joshua
Numbers 13:16 (KJV)
Whereas Hosea means “salvation”, Joshua means “Jehovah (Yehovab) is salvation.”
Abram and Sarai were given the names Abraham and Sarah. So Abram went from being known as “exalted father” (Genesis 11:26,27) to “father of a multitude.” Sarai, the wife of Abram, would become Sarah, the “princess.”8
Simon becomes Peter “the rock” and Jacob “the supplanter” is renamed Israel, meaning “governed by Yah” or “he will rule as Yah.”9
Acting As An Agent
When you say you are acting “in the name” of someone, it means that you are that person’s legal and authoritative representative. You are authorized to act on their behalf. This is the role of an agent — a person through which power is exerted or an end achieved.
When we end our prayers with the words “in Yeshua’s (Jesus’) name, we are invoking the power and authority of his name as granted to him by Yah. We are making our petition in the name of Yeshua on the authority granted to him by the Father. Agency in action is seen in the burning bush episode witnessed by Moses (Exodus 3:2), the encounter with the angel and Samson’s parents (Judges 13:3-6), and the fiery furnace experience of the three Hebrew men. (Daniel 3:20)10
The prophets acted as agents of the Most High. By saying something “in the name of God” they were in effect saying that they were His agents and spoke on His behalf. The Prophet Hosea, on at least three occasions, named his children based on orders he received from the Almighty. Their names were living, breathing icons of what was to come for rebellious Israel.
So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim, and she conceived and bore him a son. Then the LORD said to him: “Call his name Jezreel, for in a little while I will avenge the bloodshed of Jezreel on the house of Jehu, and bring an end to the kingdom of the house of Israel.
Hosea 1:3,4 (NKJV)
And she conceived again and bore a daughter. Then God said to him: “Call her name Lo-Ruhamah,” for I will no longer have mercy on the house of Israel, but I will utterly take them away.
Hosea 1:6 (NKJV)
Now when she had weaned Lo-Ruhamah, she conceived and bore a son. Then God said: “Call his name L0-Ammi, for you are not My people, and I will not be your God.”
Hosea 1:8,9 (NKJV)
Adam’s Genealogy in Genesis
The late Chuck Missler is often quoted as saying “God always rewards the diligent student.” When you take the time to study Adam’s genealogy up to Noah, you will be rewarded.
The great discovery is that the Bible is a message system: it’s not simply 66 books penned by 40 authors over thousands of years. The Bible is an integrated whole which bears evidence of supernatural engineering in every detail.
Let’s take a closer look at the meaning of each of Adam’s righteous offspring and see what they reveal that is not explicitly stated in the Genesis 5 narrative. However, you must keep in mind that proper names are often difficult to translate precisely since most lexicons and concordances tend to render superficial meanings. There is also much contention and controversy amongst academics regarding the true meanings of the original roots of the words being examined. Nevertheless, let’s take a stab at it and see what we can uncover.
Meaning of Name
substituted or appointed
mortal, frail, mankind
sorrow, dirge or elegy
blessed, mighty one
to go or come down
train up or teach
his death sends
low, to be low, lament
The Gospel in Genesis
Now that we have built the proper foundation, let’s string these meanings together.
Man is appointed mortal sorrow but the blessed mighty one shall come down to teach. His death will bring the lamenting rest.
As we said, the Father rewards the diligent student who is willing to dig deeper than most when studying the Scriptures. Before we continue, here are a few things to consider:
Hebrew was originally written with symbols called pictographs. When Judah was taken captive and sent to Babylon they adopted the Aramaic language/writing of their captors and used it to write Hebrew. So, what we call Hebrew in our day is actually Aramaic in origin.
The ancient Hebrew language is rooted in a connection to the five senses — it is “concrete” and not “abstract.” The Greek mind filters information according to its appearance. The Hebraic mind evaluates reality in ways that can be discerned through our five senses. In order to do proper research of Hebrew words in your Bible study, you have to shut down the Greek part of your brain and adopt an ancient Hebrew mindset. When doing your research, remember this:
All existing Hebrew Lexicons of the Bible convert the vocabulary of the ancient Hebrews into a vocabulary compatible to our modern western language. The greatest problem with this is that it promotes western thought when reading the Biblical text.
Jeff A. Benner, The Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible, 2005
Unpacking The Genealogy of Adam
Here is how this genealogy was sussed out.11
Adam: ארם [aleph-dahlet-mem]:
Red: to be red as a color or through the shedding of blood.
Man: from the reddish skin; ruddy, man, Adam, person.
Seth/Sheth: שח [sheen,seen-khet]:
Compensation (BDB) From H7896: to put, that is substituted; Sheth, third son of Adam: Seth, Sheth. The idea of compensation is clear in Genesis 4:24. You will find that the notion of compensation is rendered as “appointed” in the following Bible translations: KJV, NKJV, NAS, NASB 1995/1997, the ASV and the JPS Tanakh 1917.
In the Scriptures, when someone was appointed they were placed in a position or office for an intended purpose or complete a task. Seth was the man who was raised up to continue the line from which our Messiah would come. He was “compensation” for the death of Abel. (Genesis 30:28, Genesis 41:34, Numbers 1:50, Esther 2:3, Jeremiah 51:27)
And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’JPS Tanakh 1917
And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth, “For God has appointed another seed for me instead of Abel, whom Cain killed.NKJV
And Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore a son, and called his name Seth, saying, For God has raised up to me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.LXX
And Adam had sexual relations again with Eve, his wife, and she conceived, and she bore a son, and she called his name Shayth, because God gives to me another seed for the sake of Habyl, whom Qayn killed. Aramaic Bible in Plain English
Enoch/Enos: אנוש [aleph-nun-vav-sheen]:
Man, son of Seth is the standard translation of Enos. However, when you dig deeper the name yields other fascinating tidbits from Enos’ name. The Hebrew letter vav (ו) means to add, secure, bind (nailed to) and to covenant. Nun (נ) means offspring, descendant, son or continue. Sheen (ש ) can mean repeat, two, both or second.
In Alfred Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names, Enosh is translated to mean “man, frail and miserable.” The NOBSE Study Bible Name List defines it as “mortal.”
Kenan: קינן [koof-yod-nun-nun sohfeet]:
Some study aides and Bible translations erroneously equate Cainan with Kenan. The Strong’s definition is weak, defining the name Kenan as “a descendant of Seth.” Duh. This is not productive.
Kenan may even be thought to originate from the verb קונן (qonen), which means to chant a dirge,12 or from the noun קינה (qina), meaning lamentation or a sorrowful song. 13 Taken this way Kenan can mean “lamenter.” Sorrow and lamentation are comparable in that to be sorrowful means unhappiness or woe. Lament is an expression of grief, suffering, or sadness. Why is sorrow or lamentation connected to Kenan? Genesis 4:26 may provide a clue.
And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD. KJV
The most prominent usage here has to do with calling on the name of God. Usually, the context has to do with a critical or chronic need (e.g. after Cain killed Abel, man realized the full effects of the curse and began to call on God’s name–Gen 4:26) The godly recognize the presence of original sin by their continual calling on God. God responds to all who thus call on him. Indeed, the covenant people (including the stranger, I Kings 8:43) are admonished to so pray and are assured that God will reverse the curse. Not to so call on God is to deserve and justly received God’s wrath.14
R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer & Bruce K. Walke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, p. 810
Praise of God, shining one of El, blessed El, or blessed Mighty One. The noun מהלל (mahalel), means praise, from the root הלל (halal), which means to shine or praise. Mahalalel comes from mahalal which can mean blessed; and El (capitalized) is the title (not name) of the Most High.
Jared: ירד [yod-resh-dahlet]:
To descend or come down. From the verb yarad. It was during Jared’s life that the Watcher angels “came down” from heaven and mated with mortal women to produce the Nephilim (fallen ones) offspring mentioned in Genesis 6.
Enoch: חנון[khet-nun-vahv-nun sohfeet]:
There are actually 3 Enochs mentioned in the Genesis narrative. The first was a son of Cain. The second is a town that was built in the land of Nod. The third is the prophet Enoch, son of Jared in Seth’s line, in the seventh generation from Adam. His name means to teach, train, to initiate or be dedicated. The etymology of his name stems from the root חנך (hanak).
Contrary to what most Protestant churches teach, Enoch was not taken to heaven at age 365. He was taken to Paradise, or Eden (which was still on earth at the time prior to the flood of Noah). The verse (Genesis 5:24) that says “God took him” simply means he was taken from one place and transported to another place. No one, including Elijah, would have been taken to heaven above before Yeshua, the first fruits of the resurrection.15
And I also will give you commandment, my sons, as Enoch commanded his son in the first Jubilees: while still living, the seventh in his generation, he commanded and testified to his son and to his sons’ sons until the day of his death.
Jubilees 7:39, R.H. Charles translation
Strong’s Concordance defines Methuselah to mean “man of the dart”– telling us that the root for metu is mat (#4962) which means man and shelach (#7973) meaning weapon or missile; therefore, “dart.”
But wait. There’s more.
Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names reads מות (mut) for the first part and translates the whole name as “when he is dead it shall be sent.”
Here is another way to look at Methuselah’s name:
But there is another possible meaning for this name. The word metu may be derived from the word mot meaning death and the “u” is a suffix that means “their” – “their death.” There is no way to know for certain if the final vowel in metu was an “o” or a “u” as the vowel pointings that make that distinction are of fairly recent origin. If it was originally an “o” then the suffix would change to “his” – “his death.” The word shelach (missile or weapon) is the noun form of the verb shalach meaning “to send” (a missile or weapon that is sent). Shelach has the more literal meaning of “to send something.” We now have the possible meaning of “their death sends” or “his death sends.”
Jeff A. Benner
What would Methuselah’s death send? The flood!
Lamech: למד [lamed-mem-dahlet]:
Adam’s family tree produced two Lamech’s in the Genesis account. One was the son of Cain. The other was the father of Noah and son of Methuselah. The name is hard to translate because למד is not found anywhere in the texts of Scripture, so a definitive meaning is hard to pinpoint with accuracy. However, a plausible interpretation of Lamech’s name it tied to the veep mok (Strong’s #4134) and means “low” or “to be low” when ל is the prefix. It is echoed in the English word lament or lamentation and suggests a condition of despairing.
Noah: נֹחַ [nun-khet]:
The name Noah (Strong’s H5146) simply means “rest.”
Noah is an illustration of an ancient and proverbial righteous man. The etymology of the name is uncertain. In Genesis 5:29 it is associated probably as a word play wit the verb nāham (comfort, bring relief), but appears to be more directly related to nûah which…connotes rest and salvation.
Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, p. 563
When you encounter a section of the Bible that lists a rather lengthy genealogy do you put it in the TL;DR (too long, didn’t read) category of your mind? Then you are missing out on important revelations that anchor Scripture to history and Yahuah’s plan of redemption of mankind.
Every word, jot, and tittle is important. Why? Because the Eternal One, through His Ruach, wanted it to be recorded as a historical record.
Here are the top 5 reasons why genealogies matter:
They anchor us to secular and religious history
They prove that the Bible is a book about real people whose actions and choices matter
They remind us of Yah’s sovereign plans that lead to the coming Kingdom
They display Yah’s perfect timing in world events
They point to the Messiah and High Priest first alluded to in Genesis 3
All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness.
2 Timothy 3:16, ESV
1 1 Corinthians 15:21,22(BSB ): “For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.”
2 The Hebrew word for bruise used here is suph. (Strong’s #H7779) Brown Driver Briggs (BSB)defines is as “to crush, overwhelm, or gape upon; to snap at; figuratively to overwhelm: break, bruise, cover.”
3 The Hebrew word for heed or watch is tereo. (Strong’s #H5083) It can mean to “guard (from loss or injury), properly by keeping the eye upon. Thayer defines it to mean “to attend to carefully, take care of, to guard, to observe, to reserve: to undergo something.
4 Heel in Hebrew is also the word aqeb. (Strong’s #6119) BDB defines it as “hinder part, rear” (Strong) a heel (as protuberant); hence a track; figuratively the rear (of an army).
5 Definition from The Outline of Biblical Usage by Larry Pierce, creator of the Online Bible.
6 For more information consult the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, by R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, The Moody Bible Institute of Chicago, 1980, pp. 210-212
7 An angel came in the agency of the Father. The words he spoke were taken as if they came from the lips of the Most High himself. See The Gospel Worth Dying For, Chapter 9, “Agency and Prolepsis”
8 Genesis 17: 3, Genesis 17:15
9 Genesis 32:28
10 For more information on what happened inside Nebuchadnezzar’s oven, read the Prayer of Azariah which was once included in the King James 1611 Bible.
11 Resources used for this section includes James Strong, Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Updated), Hendrickson Publishers, 2017; Jeff A. Benner, Virtualbookworm.com, 2005, Ancient Hebrew Lexicon; R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., Bruce K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, Volumes 1 and 2, The Moody Bible Institute, 1980; and Francis Brown, Samuel Rolles Driver, Charles Augustus Briggs (editors), A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, 1906 (Based on the Hebrew-German lexicon of Wilhelm Gesenius).
12 Ezekiel 27:32, 1 Samuel 1:17
13 Jeremiah 7:19, Ezekiel 2:10
14 Another interpretation adopted by Jewish expositors is that men at the time profanely called on God’s name, insinuating that this was the birth of idolatry. The in which Enos lived could have marked a profound split in the behaviors of the righteous and unrighteous.
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